‘MESNE profits under CPC’6 min read



The right to possess is a fundamental right that all the people living in the country are granted. If the rightful owner is stripped of his possession while also losing the profits he should have earned from that possession, he should be credited with damages. The idea of mesne profits comes into play in this scenario. Mesne profits are profits that an individual is entitled to but, The defendant has kept him out of the courtroom. Simply put, “Mesne Profits” refers to leases or fees. Profits earned during the rightful owner’s exclusion from his estate, as well as interest earned on the benefit. Typically, a lawsuit for mesne income is filed along with an action to reclaim land ownership.

The Idea of Ownership is one of the most basic legal principles that can be found in any legal framework. Ownership is an exclusive, absolute, and ultimate relationship between an individual and an entity. The holder of this relationship is known as the ‘master,’ and he has full ownership and enjoyment of the object. There is an infinite number of arguments that make up ownership, liberties, powers & immunities with regard to the things owned.

Section 2 (12) of the CPC defines ‘Mesne Profits’ as:-

“Mesne profits” of property means those profits which the person in wrongful possession of such property actually obtained or should have received with ordinary diligence, together with interest on such profits, but shall not include profits due to improvements made by the person in wrongful possession;

The income that the individual in wrongful possession actually gained or should have earned with ordinary diligence is known as “Mesne profits” according to this concept. According to Section 2(12), an individual is only entitled to mesne profits if he has the right to acquire possession but is robbed of it by another person whose occupation is unlawful. The key requirement for transferring mesne profits is the occupant’s unlawful ownership of the land. Mesne profits also include interest in those profits, according to this section. However, any benefit gained as a result of improvements made to the property by the individual in unlawful possession of the property is expressly excluded from this description.

Some illustrations-

Illustration No. 1:

A has taken unauthorised ownership of B’s home. He reaps the benefits of such land. These benefits are referred to as ‘Mesne Profits.’ The income directly earned by A in wrongful possession of the property or the property received from it, plus interest on those profits, in this case.

No. 2 Illustration:

A, a trespasser, takes possession of B’s home and collects the rent. Mesne Profits is the name of the company. He drills a borehole in the ground, builds a group home, and rents it out. Mesne Profits are not made from well-built or newly designed structures.

In simple words, mesne profits mean that the damages and compensation that are recoverable from a person who has been in the wrongful possession, it means that profit which the plaintiff has lost by reason of the wrongful act of the defendant.

The Court observed inPurificacao Fernandes v. Hugo Vincente de Perpetuo Socorro Andhrade, that Mesne profits are nothing more than a fee that a person in unlawful possession of another’s property must pay to the owner of the property for such wrongful occupation.

Taking into account the description in Nataraja Achari v. Balambal Ammal, the Madras High Court observed that there are three types of cases in which the issue of benefit rights arises, as specified by Section 2(12):

1. A claim for past or future mesne profits, as well as ejectment or restitution of possession of immovable property from an individual in possession without a title.

2. A lawsuit for account of past or future earnings brought by one or more tenants in common against others in a partition action.

3. Suits for partition by a Hindu family member with a claim for an account from the manager.

In the first case, the plaintiff is entitled to recover mesne profits, which are in the form of damages, since the defendant’s possession is unlawful. In the second case, since the defendant’s possession and receipt of income was not wrongful, the plaintiff’s remedy is to provide an account of those profits, with all jus allowance made in favour of the receiving tenant in common. In the third case, the applicant must take the joint family property as it appears at the time of the petition for division, and he or she is not entitled to open a past account or seek compensation based on past inequality of benefit enjoyment unless the manager has engaged in dishonest conduct or misappropriation. The complainant, on the other hand, will be in the place of a joint tenant from the date of severance in status and his right would have to be worked out on that basis.


  1. Calculation of Mesne Profit: It ought to be granted based on real benefits which the transgressor got or which he may have been gotten with normal diligence.
  • Wrongful Possession: It implies that the individual who has no option to ownership as against the gathering asserting it is in improper belonging as against that Gathering for specific purposes including mesne benefits yet not illegitimate for all reasons.
  • Interest on mesne profit: It remembers the option to intrigue for the benefits that returns on the hypothesis that the individual. in unjust belonging appropriating pay from the property himself gets the advantages of the interest of such pay.
  • Rate of interest: To be permitted on the mesne profit in optional as there is no inquiries of any authoritative rate or a specific rate fixed by rule.
  • Suit for recovery of mesne profit: Plaint obviously showing that offended party not just petitioned God for mesne benefits for a period up to the choice of case. Court beneath was legitimized in permitting mesne benefits forward-thinking of choice of the case with a request to the offended party to offer court Expense in appreciation of pay granted to him the past time of three years conflict that court couldn’t grant mesne benefits past time of 3 years was repulsed in conditions.
  • Mesne Profit doesn’t impact pecuniary jurisdiction: The worth of a suit for the recuperation of ownership and mesne benefits is the worth of the unfaltering property in addition to mesne benefit modern of suit mesne benefit after suit don’t from the lease of the reason for activity even there be a supplication in the plaint for mesne benefits after suit.

Mesne Profits- against whom means profits can be ordered?

Generally, Court can award Mesne Profits against the following persons under purview of Section 2(12) of the Code of Civil Procedure,1908.

  1. Tenants in a suit for recovery of possession. (Anderson wright Vs. Amar Nath Roy)
  2.  Persons against whom a decree for possession of the immovable property was passed. (Gopal Krishna Pillai Vs. Meenakshi Ayal)
  3.  Trespass (Sita Ram Lakshmanji Vs. Dipnarain Mandal)
  4. Mortgagors in possession of mortgaged property against whom a decree for foreclosure was passed. (Shiv Kumar Sharma Vs. Santhosh Kumari)
  5. Mortgagors in possession of the property after a decree for redemption was passed. (Prabhakaran Vs M. Azhagiri Pillai).

What are the Mesne Profits Deductions?

The Court must approve the following deductions from the gross profit of the defendant in possession of the property:

1. The fee for collecting rent and other fees.

2. Crop cultivation and harvesting expenses, and 

3. Public charges derived from the property’s maintenance, such as government revenue.

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